Stakeholder-rated methods

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Stakeholder-rated methods are methods that can be used to make well-considered decisions regarding culture, ethics and legal aspects of security issues in urban development processes. This page is a reference page with results from stakeholder assessments of methods identified to address culture, social, ethics and legal aspects in urban planning.

List of requirements from VITRUV-related work

Here is the list of requirements from related projects and so far VITRUV work (in particular D1.1):

  • Identify and involve all relevant actors in the process of urban planning, including active citizen participation;
  • Consider the non-linearity based on the fact that in urban systems all phases of the crisis management cycle may be experienced simultaneously in different parts of the city;
  • Reflect that resilience in cities should be grounded in a holistic view of sustainability;
  • Appreciate individual perceptions of security (e.g. on the level of regional or national patterns);
  • Identify areas of concern and address them specifically, without extrapolating to the planning of the city as a whole;
  • Combine urban planning with raising of citizens' awareness;
  • Contribute to identifying individual as well as group-specific vulnerabilities and increasing resilience;
  • Based on the acknowledgement that public urban space is about living and evolving, not about being watched and observed, a planning tool must always allow ample space for later changes and adaptations;
  • Combine material aspects with social aspects of culture, processes built upon by the community safety approach that sees a general shift in political and public conceptions of security from situational prevention to safety of a community as a whole;
  • Contribute to adequate foresight and scenario modelling, taking into account citizens´ acceptance and acceptability of alternative futures.

These requirements have only started to be addressed as part of relevant national and European projects, such as:

  • DynASS – Dynamic Arrangements of urban security culture

  • Meet the Need – How physical and social phenomena can cause insecurity; and what urban planning can do to tackle them

  • PluS – Planning urban Security

  • DESURBS – DESigning of safer URBan Spaces

  • Chance2Sustain – Urban Chances: City Growth and the Sustainability Challenge

Stakeholder validation study

A stakeholder validation study on security-related urban planning “missions” is in progress. Approach and results to be reported here are reflected in the below “raw” table that summarizes information on methods from this Wiki:

Security-related urban planning missions Example/illustration Tool/method to meet the challenge
Enhance women's security [1] Situation analysis for planning safe cities, e.g. “What times of day or night do women and girls go out most often? What times of day or night do women and girls go out least often? Why?”; Which groups of women in the city or community most often experience violence or insecurity? Safety audit, e.g. womens’ safety audit by the Metropolitan Action Committee on Violence Against Women and Children (, based on diverse audit group members so to reflect a broad spectrum of safety concerns. A example for a safety audit checklist is available on
Consider citizens' subjective perception of criticality of (urban) infrastructure [2] We know from risk research that certain artefacts as present in urban areas can distract citizens' perception of risk from the more "objective" level of risk. For example, citizens tend to perceive "monumental" infrastructure as more critical than less conspicuous infrastructure, sometimes irrespective of the known function of that infrastructure. List of indicators derived from risk research to determine relevant kinds of infrastructure and properly address the issue of perceived criticality in urban planning.
Prevent emotional and radical reactions to "privatized" public spaces[3] Examples from urban planning, especially the concept of offering citizens new middle-class type privacy in private public spaces, such a commercial malls based on architectures “to separate out different ‘types’ of people”, including commercial policing by private companies. Advocacy Planning, Participatory Diagnosis, Local Dialogue or Dynamic Facilitation are important methods to identify different interests and ‘types’ of people in using public spaces.
Reduce gaps between felt and factual security[4] “[T]he perception of insecurity in cities depends largely upon the substantial amount and constant flow of information that urban residents receive from many sources.” (United Nations Human Settlements Programme 2007: 19). Multicultural crisis communication to identify “weak points” in urban environments, e.g. involving use of new social media in citizen-to-government/public administration and government/public administration-to-citizen communication
Zone certain functional areas in the city without creating unequal levels of security in different areas[5] Tenet of the school of "new urbanism": Overcome the zoning of functional areas, separating residential from economy, and other use. Aim at a mix of residential and economy-related functions. Conceptually, foster the integration of society into urbanity. The zoning of certain functional areas in the city relies on active citizen participation – like Opinion Surveys, Planning for Real, Local Dialogue or Round Tables – in the construction and development of urban neighbourhoods.
"Designing out" crime[6] Even if there are things that go wrong in society (which may lead to crimes), designing urban environment influences offender decisions that precede criminal acts by affecting the built, social and administrative ambience. Design can reduce the incidence of many (urban environment related) crimes through e.g. laminated glass, framed structures, bombshelter areas, good overview, visibility, better street lightening, accessibility etc. (CPTED)
Counter terrorism by design[7] To counter terrorism and better protect people from terrorist attacks in urban places, it is important to ensure the safety of public spaces and buildings. In this order urban environment should be practical, sustainable, affordable and attractive it should also give a sense of security. Guidelines for the implementation of a better blast resistance for buildings, better building management facilities, better traffic management and measures mitigating the potential effects of hostile vehicles, as well as guidelines for creating a better oversight of public spaces
Implement a full crisis management cycle[8] From the view of a comprehensive approach in urban planning, architects and planners should also reflect that in urban systems all phases of the common crisis management cycle may be experienced simultaneously in different parts of the city. The urban planning tool should reflect that resilience in cities should be grounded in a holistic view of sustainability and consider social, economic, political, demographic, and environmental functional components. (Pelling 2003: 12) Methods to integrate these components are Expert Forums, Interviews, Local Dialog, Round Table, Future Workshops, etc.
Match built environment with citizen user cultures[9] The planning process of urban environments should consider that public space is used by different social groups. Value conflicts and security problems accumulated in specific areas are counterproductive both to planning and everyday use. Discursive strategies and related public communication measures, like Advocacy Planning, Participatory Diagnosis, Local Dialogue or Dynamic Facilitation, are an important asset in reducing public disorder phenomena.
Protect crowded places[10] Crowded places (sports stadia, concert halls, clubs/pubs, exhibitions/museums, shopping malls etc.) represent attractive targets for terrorists or criminal attacks. Through efficient planning of building structure, windows and glazing, parking and external areas, building internal layout, good building lighting and continuous monitoring systems, urban planners can enhance the security of crowded places.
Legal aspects in urban planning:[11] Legal aspects in urban planning establish, delimit and regulate the use of urban environment and exclude at the same time the abuse of public areas. In addition to national, regional and local planning regulations, public participation methods, like Advocacy Planning, Participatory Diagnosis or Local Dialogue, represent ideal instruments to decide the appropriate legislative measures and their acceptance by the citizens.
Protection of sensitive data (general)
Engineering and transportation infrastructures
Environmental conditions
Public ownership
Ethics aspects in urban planning:[12] Ethical principles for all who participate in the process of environmental planning derive both from the general values of society and from the planner's special responsibility to serve the public interest. Ethical aspects accentuate the necessity for the highest standards of fairness and honesty among the planning process. Facilitation, Safety Audits and Future Workshops are important methods to identify through citizen’s participation the different ethical issues in environmental planning.
Distributive justice (idea of same security [level] for all)
Citizen rights
Acceptability of planning decisions
Protection of personal data
Gender perspectives (general)

Footnotes and references

  1. Women’s Initiatives for Safer Environments (WISE): Women’s Community Safety Audit Guide: Safety for Women, Safety for Everyone, Let’s Act on It! Ottawa: WISE, 2010. Retrieved from:
  2. KIRAS Project SFI@SFU work. Retrieved from:
  3. Garland D.: The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press,2001, 162.
  4. United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT): Enhancing urban safety and security. London: Earthscan, 2007, 19. Retrieved from:
  5. Calthorpe P., Fulton W. : The Regional City: Planning for the End of the Sprawl. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2001.
  6. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. Retrieved from:
  7. HM Government: Crowded Places: The Planning System and Counter-Terrorism. Home Office and Department for Communities and Local Government. Crown copyright, 2012. Retrieved from
  8. Pelling M.: The Vulnerability of Cities: Natural Disasters and Social Resilience. London: Sterling, VA: Earthscan, 2003, 12.
  9. Participation and sustainable development in Europe. Retrieved from:
  10. HM Government: Crowded Places: The Planning System and Counter-Terrorism. Home Office and Department for Communities and Local Government. Crown copyright, 2012. Retrieved from
  11. Some Aspects to Consider in Urban Planning. Retrieved from:; National Planning Systems. Retrieved from:; Informal settlements and the millennium development goals. Retrieved from:
  12. The American Planning Association: Ethical principles in planning. Retrieved from: