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Stakeholders are actors with a specific interest (which may be expressed or not) in the development of an objective, policy or measure. So stakeholders include a wide array of public and private organisations (municipalities and authorities, universities and institutes, associations, enterprises, chambers etc.), individuals (politicians, experts etc), and the media and, of course, the public (citizens and visitors to the city or urban area). Stakeholders can be organisations or individuals. There can be simple reasoning applied to identify stakeholders (see below), and there are practical steps to progress and encourage stakeholder involvement, which can include processes such as activating opinion surveys.

Possible stakeholders in an Urban Environment[1]
Government Business Communities Others
European Union National Business Associations National Environmental NGOs Universities
Department of Environment/Planning Major employers Trade unions Experts
Other National Departments Private Financiers Media Research Specialists
Regional Authorities International/National Business Local Authority Forums End-user or Ultimate Building Occupier
Local Authorities/Municipalities
(Departments include: planning, housing, transport, environment, water & sanitary, and community & recreation etc)
Regional/Local Business Local Community Organisations
Proximate Urban Area Authorities Retailers Local Interest Groups
Transport Authorities Utilities Companies Citizens
Law Enforcement Contractors Visitors
Politicians (Councillors) Urban Planning Consultants Citizens in Proximate Urban Areas
Other Decision Makers Developers Disabled People
Partnership Bodies Landowners
Project Managers Parents/Children
Professional Staff Elderly Persons
Emergency Services
Health and Safety Executives

How to identify stakeholders

Stakeholders may be identified by checking (groups) of people against the following interest categories:

  • Proximity - People who live, work or spend time in or near to an area which may be affected;
  • Economic - People whose business, livelihood, property value or cost of living may be affected;
  • Use - People who use or may use facilities which will be affected;
  • Social/Environmental - People who may be affected by secondary impacts;
  • Values - People who have a moral, religious or political interest in the project or its effects;
  • Legal mandates - People who are legally required to be involved in the process.

Footnotes and references

  1. GUIDEMAPS, 2004a. Successful transport decision-making. A project management and stakeholder engagement handbook. Volume I: Concepts and Tools. Available at: