Difference between revisions of "Measure: Removal of crime motivator"

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'''Removal of a crime motivator''' is the [[measure]] of reducing risk by removing the benefits of a crime.
+
[[Category:Measure]]'''Removal of a crime motivator''' is the [[measure]] of reducing risk by removing the benefits of a crime.
   
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
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== Effectiveness ==
 
== Effectiveness ==
Security issues where this measure can be effective and influenced by the urban planner, are:
+
Security issues where this measure can be effective and influenced by the urban planner, are{{#tip-info:these measures are not or less appropriate or effective against <span style="color:silver">greyed-out</span> security issues}}:
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"
 
|- style="background:#f0f0f0;
 
|- style="background:#f0f0f0;
 
! Financial gain !! Boredom or compulsive behaviour !! Impulse !! Conflict in beliefs
 
! Financial gain !! Boredom or compulsive behaviour !! Impulse !! Conflict in beliefs
 
|-
 
|-
| <span style="color:silver">Burglary</span>{{#info:Burglary is the crime of illicitly entering a building with the intent to commit an offence, particularly (but not limited to) theft.}} || <span style="color:silver">Physical assault</span>{{#info:Assault, is a crime which involves causing a victim to fear or to experience any type of violence, except for sexual violence}} || [[Security issue: Destruction by riots|Destruction by riots]]{{#info:Destruction by riots is the act of vandalism of property by organised groups for a shared rational or rationalised reason.}} || <span style="color:silver">Mass killing</span>{{#info:Mass killing is the crime of purposely causing harm or death to a group of (unknown) people in order to make a statement or to influence the public opinion. This threat is exerted out of wilful action by fanatics: terrorists or criminal activists.}}
+
| <span style="color:silver">Burglary</span>{{#tip-info:Burglary is the crime of illicitly entering a building with the intent to commit an offence, particularly (but not limited to) theft.}} || <span style="color:silver">Physical assault</span>{{#tip-info:Assault, is a crime which involves causing a victim to fear or to experience any type of violence, except for sexual violence}} || [[Security issue: Destruction by riots|Destruction by riots]]{{#tip-info:Destruction by riots is the act of vandalism of property by organised groups for a shared rational or rationalised reason.}} || <span style="color:silver">Mass killing</span>{{#tip-info:Mass killing is the crime of purposely causing harm or death to a group of (unknown) people in order to make a statement or to influence the public opinion. This threat is exerted out of wilful action by fanatics: terrorists or criminal activists.}}
 
|-
 
|-
| <span style="color:silver">Ram-raiding</span>{{#info:Ram raid is a particular technique for burglars to gain access to primarily commercial premises, by means of driving -usually stolen- vehicles into locked or closed entrances, exits or windows.}}|| <span style="color:silver">Sexual assault</span>{{#info:Sexual assault is assault of a sexual nature on another person, or any sexual act committed without consent}} || || <span style="color:silver">Destruction of property by fanatics</span>{{#info:Destruction by fanatics is the crime of purposely causing damage in order to make a statement or to influence the public opinion.}}
+
| <span style="color:silver">Ram-raiding</span>{{#tip-info:Ram raid is a particular technique for burglars to gain access to primarily commercial premises, by means of driving -usually stolen- vehicles into locked or closed entrances, exits or windows.}}|| <span style="color:silver">Sexual assault</span>{{#tip-info:Sexual assault is assault of a sexual nature on another person, or any sexual act committed without consent}} || || <span style="color:silver">Destruction of property by fanatics</span>{{#tip-info:Destruction by fanatics is the crime of purposely causing damage in order to make a statement or to influence the public opinion.}}
 
|-
 
|-
| <span style="color:silver">Pickpocketing</span>{{#info:Pickpocketing is a form of theft that involves the stealing of valuables from a victim without their noticing the theft at the time. }} || <span style="color:silver">Vandalism</span>{{#info:Vandalism is the act of wilful or malicious destruction, injury, disfigurement, or defacement of property without the consent of the owner or person having custody or control.}} || ||
+
| <span style="color:silver">Pickpocketing</span>{{#tip-info:Pickpocketing is a form of theft that involves the stealing of valuables from a victim without their noticing the theft at the time. }} || <span style="color:silver">Vandalism</span>{{#tip-info:Vandalism is the act of wilful or malicious destruction, injury, disfigurement, or defacement of property without the consent of the owner or person having custody or control.}} || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| <span style="color:silver">Robbery</span>{{#info:Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take something of value by force or threat of force or by putting the victim in fear. It is used her exclusively for acts committed to individual persons.}} || <span style="color:silver">Graffiti</span>{{#info:Grafitti is the defacement of property by means of writing or drawings scribbled, scratched, or sprayed on a surface in a public place without the consent of the owner or person having custody or control. }} || ||
+
| <span style="color:silver">Robbery</span>{{#tip-info:Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take something of value by force or threat of force or by putting the victim in fear. It is used her exclusively for acts committed to individual persons.}} || <span style="color:silver">Graffiti</span>{{#tip-info:Grafitti is the defacement of property by means of writing or drawings scribbled, scratched, or sprayed on a surface in a public place without the consent of the owner or person having custody or control. }} || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| <span style="color:silver">Raid</span>{{#info:Raid is the crime of taking or attempting to take something of value from a commercial venue by force or threat of force or by putting the victim in fear.}} || <span style="color:silver">Antisocial Behaviour</span>{{#info:Antisocial behaviour is an accumulation category of relatively small crimes that highly influence the security perception of citizens. }} || ||
+
| <span style="color:silver">Raid</span>{{#tip-info:Raid is the crime of taking or attempting to take something of value from a commercial venue by force or threat of force or by putting the victim in fear.}} || <span style="color:silver">Antisocial Behaviour</span>{{#tip-info:Antisocial behaviour is an accumulation category of relatively small crimes that highly influence the security perception of citizens. }} || ||
 
|-
 
|-
| <span style="color:silver">Vehicle theft</span>{{#info:Vehicle theft is the crime of theft, or attempt of theft of or from a motor vehicle (automobile, truck, bus, motorcycle, etc.).}} || || ||
+
| <span style="color:silver">Vehicle theft</span>{{#tip-info:Vehicle theft is the crime of theft, or attempt of theft of or from a motor vehicle (automobile, truck, bus, motorcycle, etc.).}} || || ||
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
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=== Urban planning considerations ===
 
=== Urban planning considerations ===
Urban planning can play an important role in the removal of crime motivators through the creation of places which feature high levels of natural surveillance, and limiting or removing spaces which are not overlooked or observed. This reduces or removes the opportunity for criminals to commit crimes within such locations, making them safer and more secure. The use of natural surveillance is more desirable than active surveillance methods, as not only are such places more cost effective to secure, but areas which feature a high proportion of active surveillance measures can become counterproductive in some instances by making such places oppressive in character.
+
Urban planning could play an important role in the removal of crime motivators through the creation of places that feature high levels of natural surveillance, and limiting or removing spaces that are not overlooked or observed. This reduces or removes the opportunity for criminals to commit crimes within such locations, making them safer and more secure. The use of natural surveillance is more desirable than active surveillance methods, as not only are such places more cost effective to secure, but areas which feature a high proportion of active surveillance measures can become counterproductive in some instances by making such places oppressive in character.
   
 
=== Safety/security considerations ===
 
=== Safety/security considerations ===
Line 44: Line 44:
   
 
=== Social considerations ===
 
=== Social considerations ===
The removal of crime motivator is a perfect case example of the [[designing out approach]], or as an aspect of [[Sustainable design|sustainable design]], which seeks a balanced consideration of [[Social aspects|social,]] economic, [[Culture aspects|cultural]] and environmental aspects in urban design. As such being a complex measure - although seeming an easy, "technical" solution -, it will only be effective and accepted by the public if it takes the existing [[security culture]] into account. This can best be accomplished by appropriately involving citizens, based on a set of introduced methods of [[citizen participation]] as compiled by VITRUV.
+
The removal of crime motivator is a perfect case example of the [[designing out approach]], or as an aspect of [[Sustainable design|sustainable design]], which seeks a balanced consideration of [[Social aspects|social,]] economic, [[Culture aspects|cultural]] and environmental aspects in urban design. As a measure it will be accepted by the public if it takes the existing [[security culture]] into account. This can best be accomplished by appropriately involving citizens, based on a set of introduced methods of [[citizen participation]] as compiled by VITRUV.
   
Ideally, planning for the measure of removal of crime motivator should include usability test in relevant social contexts. An example of a specific practical method to accomplish this is the [[safety audit]], which focuses on local and context-specific solutions to address security issues. It should be considered that the measure of removing a crime motivator can probably not always be implemented just based on measures directed a built infrastructure. Social aspects should be closely taken into account. For example, cultural norms that define masculinity can act as enablers (motivators) for violence by marginalised young men who feel themselves excluded from normal paths of enacting gender-specific norms of virility.
+
Ideally, planning for the measure of removal of crime motivator should include an usability test. An example of a specific practical method to accomplish this is the [[safety audit]], that focuses on local and context-specific solutions to address security issues. It should be considered that the measure of removing a crime motivator can probably not always be implemented. Social aspects should be closely taken into account. For example, cultural norms that define masculinity can act as enablers (motivators) for violence by marginalised young men who feel themselves excluded from normal paths of enacting gender-specific norms of virility.
   
 
=== Economic considerations ===
 
=== Economic considerations ===
Removal of crime motivator (see the case example below) deters and prevents crime, but at the same time demands investments, exacting [[Economic impact|economic costs]]. Together these benefits and costs are referred to as [[Economic impact of security measures|economic impact of security measures]]. The costs of measures like the removal of crime motivators contain the relatively straightforward [[Primary economic impact|direct expenditures]] on capital equipment and operational costs such as investments in coatings for wall (against graffiti) or the construction of vandalism-prone objects. In addition, the removal of crime motivator generates various types of [[Secondary economic impact|secondary effects]] as the result of subsequent rounds of expenditure ('re-expenditures') of business companies, households and public authorities outside the security market. Whether the costs are making sense from an economic point of view, depends on many factors, and can be answered by two distinct sets of questions (see also the [[Economic tools#Economic assessment step by step|'''flow chart''']] of an economic assessment):
 
  +
From a [[The economics of crime|rational-economic]] perspective, the resolvement of potential rewards will (in a positive way) shake up the risk-benefit analysis of a (potential) criminal whether or not to commit a crime. Put differently, it will make the next best alternative more attractive compared to the intended criminal act, increasing its [[opportunity cost]]. This process of deterring and preventing a criminal act leads to a reduction in crime, and automatically also of the negative [[Economic effects of crime|economic impact of crime]]. The installment of vandal proof glass, for instance, will not just prevent material and immaterial damage to urban objects and infrastructural facilities, but will also prevent [[Secondary economic impact|indirect]] economic damage to the economy, as it contributes to a safe and whole environment (attracting economic activity).
# Are the envisioned measures cost effective from a socio-economic point of view, or are there better alternatives?
 
# Which specific agents (individuals, companies, sectors, authorities) are affected by the envisioned measures, and to which extend? How do the envisioned measures change/alter the behaviour of these agents, and, of course, the [[The economics of criminal and terrorist behaviour|behaviour of criminals/terrorists]]?
 
   
''Cost-effectiveness of removal of crime motivators aimed at criminal juveniles:''
 
  +
The economic cost of measures like the removal of crime motivators contain the relatively straightforward [[Economic effects of anti-crime security measures#Direct (primary) costs of security|direct expenditures]] on capital equipment and operational cost such as investments in coatings for wall (against graffiti) or the construction of vandalism-prone objects. In addition, the removal of crime motivator generates various types of [[Economic effects of anti-crime security measures#Indirect (secondary) costs of security|secondary effects]] as the result of subsequent rounds of expenditure ('re-expenditures') of business companies, households and public authorities outside the security market.
{{quote|"Many social and economic policies designed for other purposes may also reduce the incidence of serious crimes. Programs to encourage young people to remain in school, for example, have proved to be one of the most cost-effective crime-reduction strategies"(Greenwood, 2004)<ref>Greenwood, P. (2004). Cost-Effective Violence Prevention Through Targeted Family Interventions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1036: 201-214. In: Shapiro, J. and K.A. Hassett (2012). ''The Economic Benefits of Reducing Violent Crime. A Case Study of 8 American Cities'': 5</ref>. Another study by the Australian Institute of Criminology (1998)<ref>Weatherburn, D. & B. Lind (1998). ''Poverty, Parenting, Peers and Crime-Prone Neighbourhoods''. Australian Institute of Criminology. Trends & Issues in crime and criminal justice. No.85</ref> finds that economic and social disadvantages have a disruptive effect on parenting skills (in terms of neglect and abuse), causing juveniles to participate in criminal activities, especially in crime prone areas. Hence, the study conclude that long-term measures against juvenile crime aimed at improving parenting skills (e.g. by reducing the level of economic stress (poverty) or the introduction of family and child support programs) will contribute significantly to the reduction of juvenile crime, even though these benefits will not be realised as fast as in comparison to, for example, policing, which is mostly aimed at reducing the frequency of offences (and not so much the supply of motivated offenders).}}
 
   
[[Economic tools]] can help decision makers to answer these questions and to prevent wasteful expenditures on security (of course in collaboration with insights from criminology, sociology, etc.). In terms of benefit-cost ratio, removal of crime motivator can be considered as a type of security measure which in a relatively subtle way increases security, in contrast to measures such as security guards, big concrete walls and barb wire that may be pervasive, but can also arouse feelings of fear and anxiety<ref>Coaffee, J., P. O’Hare, and M. Hawkesworth. ''The Visibility of (In)security: The Aesthetics of Planning Urban Defences Against Terrorism''. Security Dialogue 2009 40:489.</ref>. Since the removal of crime motivator is a measure that belongs to the [[designing out approach]], or to [[Sustainable design|sustainable design]], it is complex and demands larger investments than traditional security measures, but at the same time they are able to avoid future costs due to the long-term prevention of crime.
 
  +
Considering the direct and indirect cost of security measures, one should always investigate if the potential benefits of the specific set of security measures outweigh its cost. Of course, the answer to this question depends on many factors and the specific situation. Nevertheless, two fundamental aspects of this economic analysis should always be part of this investigation. These aspects are:
  +
# Are the envisioned measures cost effective from a socioeconomic point of view, or do there exist better alternatives?
  +
# Which specific agents (individuals, companies, sectors, authorities) are affected by the envisioned measures, and to which extend? How do the envisioned measures change/alter the behaviour of these agents, and, of course, the [[The economics of criminal and terrorist behaviour|behaviour of criminals/terrorists (in economic terms)]]?
  +
  +
[[Economic tools]] can help decision makers to answer these questions and to prevent wasteful expenditures on security. In terms of benefit-cost ratio, the removal of crime motivators can be considered as a type of security measure which in a relatively subtle way increases security, in contrast to measures such as security guards, big concrete walls and barb wire that may be pervasive, but can also arouse feelings of fear and anxiety<ref>Coaffee, J., P. O’Hare, and M. Hawkesworth (2009): The Visibility of (In)security: The Aesthetics of Planning Urban Defences Against Terrorism. Security Dialogue 2009 40:489.</ref>. As this specific security measure belongs to the [[designing out approach]], or to [[Sustainable design|sustainable design]], it indeed in general demands larger investments than traditional security measures, but at the same time these (more sustainable) types of measures will avoid future cost due to the long-term prevention of crime (see the case example below).
  +
  +
''Cost-effectiveness of removal of crime motivators aimed at criminal juveniles:''
  +
{{quote|"Many social and economic policies designed for other purposes may also reduce the incidence of serious crimes. Programs to encourage young people to remain in school, for example, have proved to be one of the most cost-effective crime-reduction strategies" (Greenwood, 2004)<ref>Greenwood, P. (2004): Cost-Effective Violence Prevention Through Targeted Family Interventions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1036: 201-214. In: Shapiro, J. and K.A. Hassett (2012): The Economic Benefits of Reducing Violent Crime. A Case Study of 8 American Cities: 5</ref>. Another study by the Australian Institute of Criminology (1998)<ref>Weatherburn, D. & B. Lind (1998): Poverty, Parenting, Peers and Crime-Prone Neighbourhoods. Australian Institute of Criminology. Trends & Issues in crime and criminal justice. No.85</ref> finds that economic and social disadvantages have a disruptive effect on parenting skills (in terms of neglect and abuse), causing juveniles to participate in criminal activities, especially in crime prone areas. Hence, the study conclude that long-term measures against juvenile crime aimed at improving parenting skills (e.g. by reducing the level of economic stress (poverty) or the introduction of family and child support programs) will contribute significantly to the reduction of juvenile crime, even though these benefits will not be realised as fast as in comparison to, for example, policing, which is mostly aimed at reducing the frequency of offences, and not so much the supply of motivated offenders.}}
   
 
=== Mobility considerations ===
 
=== Mobility considerations ===
Line 63: Line 67:
   
 
=== Ethics considerations ===
 
=== Ethics considerations ===
Since not all crime motivators have a criminal quality in themselves, removing motivators may in some cases involve a risk of departure from normal liberal democratic standards (such as protection of liberties).
+
Since not all crime motivators have an inherent criminal quality , removing motivators may in some cases involve a risk of departure from normal liberal democratic standards.
   
Pinpointing specific [[Ethics aspects|ethics aspects]] in related to removal of crime motivators needs to consider, among other things, citizen security cultures and citizens' personal concerns. There are no ethics considerations that can be planned or implemented without prior identification and addressing of citizens' perceptions. To support this, VITRUV offers a commented [[Determination_of_security_aspects_-_methods_for_urban_planners#Methods_to_determine_ethics_aspects_in_planning_of_public_spaces|list of methods to determine ethics aspects]] in relevant urban planning.
+
Pinpointing specific [[Ethics aspects|ethics aspects]] related to removal of crime motivators need to consider citizen security cultures and citizens' personal concerns. There are no ethics considerations that can be planned or implemented without prior identification and addressing of citizens' perceptions. To support this, VITRUV offers a commented [[Determination_of_security_aspects_-_methods_for_urban_planners#Methods_to_determine_ethics_aspects_in_planning_of_public_spaces|list of methods to determine ethics aspects]] in relevant urban planning.
   
 
=== Legal considerations ===
 
=== Legal considerations ===
Detailed [[Legal aspects|legal]] coverage of the measure of removal of crime motivator is needed at the level of detail implications, for example splitting groups of people in order to reduce motivation for riots.
 
  +
Legal considerations when considering removal of crime motivator measures are:
 
  +
* [[legal aspects#Appearance|Appearance]] - Measures for removal of crime motivator may conflict with appearance rules
VITRUV offers a [[Legal_aspects#Summary_table_of_legal_aspects_in_urban_planning|summary checklist]] and a [[Determination_of_security_aspects_-_methods_for_urban_planners#Methods_to_determine_legal_aspects_in_planning_of_public_spaces|list of methods]] to assess legal aspects in resilience-enhancing urban planning.
 
   
 
{{references}}
 
{{references}}

Latest revision as of 14:46, 1 November 2019

Removal of a crime motivator is the measure of reducing risk by removing the benefits of a crime.

Description

A crime motivator is an important reason of the offender to commit his or her crime. For a burglar, for instance this would be financial gain, a graffiti artist would like his work to be visible to the intended audience, a vandal likes a spectacular way of failing (like shattered glass) of or damage to the object and a terrorist would like his act to be widely advertised.

The measure of removal of the crime motivator is directed at denying the offer the 'rewards' of his or her crime. For example, by removing the opportunity to sell stolen goods, the motivation for burglary can be removed.

Examples

  • Making goods unsellable by marking them
    Bicycle marked against theft
  • Constructing street furniture and street art out of invaluable materials, so stealing and selling the metal does not pay
  • Constructing vandalism-prone objects from materials that fail in non-spectacular fashions
  • Designing street furniture for rapid repair (for example by modular design)
  • Designing walls designed for rapid removal of graffiti (by for instance coating them)

Effectiveness

Security issues where this measure can be effective and influenced by the urban planner, are:

Financial gain Boredom or compulsive behaviour Impulse Conflict in beliefs
Burglary Physical assault Destruction by riots Mass killing
Ram-raiding Sexual assault Destruction of property by fanatics
Pickpocketing Vandalism
Robbery Graffiti
Raid Antisocial Behaviour
Vehicle theft

Considerations

General considerations

There are no specific environmental conditions required to make removal of crime motivators effective, but a good removal of crime motivators measure does require a good understanding what motivates a perpetrator and some creativity to remove this aspect from the environment without impairing the function of the object (too much).

Urban planning considerations

Urban planning could play an important role in the removal of crime motivators through the creation of places that feature high levels of natural surveillance, and limiting or removing spaces that are not overlooked or observed. This reduces or removes the opportunity for criminals to commit crimes within such locations, making them safer and more secure. The use of natural surveillance is more desirable than active surveillance methods, as not only are such places more cost effective to secure, but areas which feature a high proportion of active surveillance measures can become counterproductive in some instances by making such places oppressive in character.

Safety/security considerations

As long as safety functions of the concerned objects and materials are sufficiently considered, removal of crime motivators has no effects on safety and security.

Social considerations

The removal of crime motivator is a perfect case example of the designing out approach, or as an aspect of sustainable design, which seeks a balanced consideration of social, economic, cultural and environmental aspects in urban design. As a measure it will be accepted by the public if it takes the existing security culture into account. This can best be accomplished by appropriately involving citizens, based on a set of introduced methods of citizen participation as compiled by VITRUV.

Ideally, planning for the measure of removal of crime motivator should include an usability test. An example of a specific practical method to accomplish this is the safety audit, that focuses on local and context-specific solutions to address security issues. It should be considered that the measure of removing a crime motivator can probably not always be implemented. Social aspects should be closely taken into account. For example, cultural norms that define masculinity can act as enablers (motivators) for violence by marginalised young men who feel themselves excluded from normal paths of enacting gender-specific norms of virility.

Economic considerations

From a rational-economic perspective, the resolvement of potential rewards will (in a positive way) shake up the risk-benefit analysis of a (potential) criminal whether or not to commit a crime. Put differently, it will make the next best alternative more attractive compared to the intended criminal act, increasing its opportunity cost. This process of deterring and preventing a criminal act leads to a reduction in crime, and automatically also of the negative economic impact of crime. The installment of vandal proof glass, for instance, will not just prevent material and immaterial damage to urban objects and infrastructural facilities, but will also prevent indirect economic damage to the economy, as it contributes to a safe and whole environment (attracting economic activity).

The economic cost of measures like the removal of crime motivators contain the relatively straightforward direct expenditures on capital equipment and operational cost such as investments in coatings for wall (against graffiti) or the construction of vandalism-prone objects. In addition, the removal of crime motivator generates various types of secondary effects as the result of subsequent rounds of expenditure ('re-expenditures') of business companies, households and public authorities outside the security market.

Considering the direct and indirect cost of security measures, one should always investigate if the potential benefits of the specific set of security measures outweigh its cost. Of course, the answer to this question depends on many factors and the specific situation. Nevertheless, two fundamental aspects of this economic analysis should always be part of this investigation. These aspects are:

  1. Are the envisioned measures cost effective from a socioeconomic point of view, or do there exist better alternatives?
  2. Which specific agents (individuals, companies, sectors, authorities) are affected by the envisioned measures, and to which extend? How do the envisioned measures change/alter the behaviour of these agents, and, of course, the behaviour of criminals/terrorists (in economic terms)?

Economic tools can help decision makers to answer these questions and to prevent wasteful expenditures on security. In terms of benefit-cost ratio, the removal of crime motivators can be considered as a type of security measure which in a relatively subtle way increases security, in contrast to measures such as security guards, big concrete walls and barb wire that may be pervasive, but can also arouse feelings of fear and anxiety[1]. As this specific security measure belongs to the designing out approach, or to sustainable design, it indeed in general demands larger investments than traditional security measures, but at the same time these (more sustainable) types of measures will avoid future cost due to the long-term prevention of crime (see the case example below).

Cost-effectiveness of removal of crime motivators aimed at criminal juveniles:

"Many social and economic policies designed for other purposes may also reduce the incidence of serious crimes. Programs to encourage young people to remain in school, for example, have proved to be one of the most cost-effective crime-reduction strategies" (Greenwood, 2004)[2]. Another study by the Australian Institute of Criminology (1998)[3] finds that economic and social disadvantages have a disruptive effect on parenting skills (in terms of neglect and abuse), causing juveniles to participate in criminal activities, especially in crime prone areas. Hence, the study conclude that long-term measures against juvenile crime aimed at improving parenting skills (e.g. by reducing the level of economic stress (poverty) or the introduction of family and child support programs) will contribute significantly to the reduction of juvenile crime, even though these benefits will not be realised as fast as in comparison to, for example, policing, which is mostly aimed at reducing the frequency of offences, and not so much the supply of motivated offenders.

Mobility considerations

Mobility is normally not affected by removal of crime motivators, since it will not affect the road infrastructure or the traffic demand. Also, traffic or traffic infrastructure is usually not a crime motivator in itself. There could be a (negligable) effect of attracting less traffic to places which used to be attractive for crime offenders, after the crime motivator was removed.

Ethics considerations

Since not all crime motivators have an inherent criminal quality , removing motivators may in some cases involve a risk of departure from normal liberal democratic standards.

Pinpointing specific ethics aspects related to removal of crime motivators need to consider citizen security cultures and citizens' personal concerns. There are no ethics considerations that can be planned or implemented without prior identification and addressing of citizens' perceptions. To support this, VITRUV offers a commented list of methods to determine ethics aspects in relevant urban planning.

Legal considerations

Legal considerations when considering removal of crime motivator measures are:

  • Appearance - Measures for removal of crime motivator may conflict with appearance rules

Footnotes and references

  1. Coaffee, J., P. O’Hare, and M. Hawkesworth (2009): The Visibility of (In)security: The Aesthetics of Planning Urban Defences Against Terrorism. Security Dialogue 2009 40:489.
  2. Greenwood, P. (2004): Cost-Effective Violence Prevention Through Targeted Family Interventions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1036: 201-214. In: Shapiro, J. and K.A. Hassett (2012): The Economic Benefits of Reducing Violent Crime. A Case Study of 8 American Cities: 5
  3. Weatherburn, D. & B. Lind (1998): Poverty, Parenting, Peers and Crime-Prone Neighbourhoods. Australian Institute of Criminology. Trends & Issues in crime and criminal justice. No.85