Security issues

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The types of crime that are deemed relevant enough for the urban planning process to be explicitly elaborated upon in this Securipedia, are called Security Issues.

Description

Security issues in the context of this Securipedia are crimes that are:

  • relevant in an urban environment;
  • potentially influenced or influenceable by the urban built environment.

When we filter a list of all crime types along these criteria, and group these crimes where possible, we get a list of 14 crimes that can be considered security issues from a viewpoint of an urban planner. These crimes are presented in the table below, together with a very short description (by clicking the {{#info:to get a short description}}). Detailed information on each security issue can be found at the linked pages. For convenience, crimes are arranged by most likely to least likely motive for committing the crime.

Financial gain Boredom or compulsive behaviour Impulse Conflict in beliefs
Burglary{{#info:Burglary is the crime of illicitly entering a building with the intent to commit an offence, particularly (but not limited to) theft.}} Physical assault{{#info:Assault, is a crime which involves causing a victim to fear or to experience any type of violence, except for sexual violence}} Destruction by riots{{#info:Destruction by riots is the act of vandalism of property by organised groups for a shared rational or rationalised reason.}} Mass killing{{#info:Mass killing is the crime of purposely causing harm or death to a group of (unknown) people in order to make a statement or to influence the public opinion. This threat is exerted out of wilful action by fanatics: terrorists or criminal activists.}}
Ram-raiding{{#info:Ram raid is a particular technique for burglars to gain access to primarily commercial premises, by means of driving -usually stolen- vehicles into locked or closed entrances, exits or windows.}} Sexual assault{{#info:Sexual assault is assault of a sexual nature on another person, or any sexual act committed without consent}} Destruction of property by fanatics{{#info:Destruction by fanatics is the crime of purposely causing damage in order to make a statement or to influence the public opinion.}}
Pickpocketing{{#info:Pickpocketing is a form of theft that involves the stealing of valuables from a victim without their noticing the theft at the time. }} Vandalism{{#info:Vandalism is the act of wilful or malicious destruction, injury, disfigurement, or defacement of property without the consent of the owner or person having custody or control.}}
Robbery{{#info:Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take something of value by force or threat of force or by putting the victim in fear. It is used her exclusively for acts committed to individual persons.}} Graffiti{{#info:Grafitti is the defacement of property by means of writing or drawings scribbled, scratched, or sprayed on a surface in a public place without the consent of the owner or person having custody or control. }}
Raid{{#info:Raid is the crime of taking or attempting to take something of value from a commercial venue by force or threat of force or by putting the victim in fear.}}
Vehicle theft{{#info:Vehicle theft is the crime of theft, or attempt of theft of or from a motor vehicle (automobile, truck, bus, motorcycle, etc.).}}

Crimes that are relevant in an urban environment, but are not included as security issue, are:

  • Alcohol and drug abuse. Although relevant enough to deserve a describing page, this crime is not included as security issue, as its effects are apparent through various other security issues. It is therefore included as disinhibitor for other crimes only.
  • Antisocial Behaviour is a category covering a broad range of relatively small crimes that highly influence the security perception of citizens. These relative small crimes combined, can have significant effects on the well-being of citizens and it therefore deserves an own page describing this type of crime. The diverse nature of this category makes it unsuited for concrete analysis and advise. Moreover, it is a problem that is traditionally included in the attention of the urban planner. That is why this type of crime is not included as a security issue.
  • Homicide is a crime type that is relatively rare. Also, for the majority of cases it is committed indoors, and when committed in a public place it is to a high degree spontaneous and not influenced by the built environment.

Footnotes and references