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Transport or transportation is the movement of people, cattle, animals and goods from one location to another. Transport is important since it enables trade between peoples, which in turn establishes civilizations[1].Transport plays an important part in economic growth and globalization, but most types cause air pollution and use large amounts of land. Good planning of transport is essential to make traffic flow, and restrain urban sprawl.= Transportation system =A transportation system can be defined as “the assemblage of components associated with a specific means of transport”(BRON: Transportation security and the role of resilience - A foundation for operational metrics.pdf / Tolley andTurton,1995,p.42).== Regional Transportation system ==A regional transportation system can be defined as the combination of vehicles, infrastructure, and operations that enable the movements or “satisfy the travel demand” of people and goods within a defined region (BRON: Transportation security and the role of resilience - A foundation for operational metrics.pdf / Cascetta, 2001,p.xv; see also Tolley and Turton,1995,p.13; Black, 2003, p.3).== Urban Transportation system ==An urban transportation system can be defined as the set of transport infrastructures and modes that support urban movements of passengers and freight. It generally expresses the level of accessibility (bron: ).== Policy areas in the transportation system ==From RAND Europe and TNO[2] The transportation system can be described as a market: a system with dynamic interaction between demand and supply. In this interaction, implicit and explicit choices are made on both the demand and supply sides. These choices interact.

Within the overall traffic and transport market, three market segments can be distinguished, each of which has its own supply and demand side: a trip market, a transport market, and a traffic market. The three markets and their relationships are depicted graphically below:


Figure : System diagram for the policy domain transport and traffic (Source: TNO rapport; Immers, B., Transportation System Analysis)

Trip Market

In the trip market, the demand side consists of activities to be performed, whose location and time are as yet unknown. The supply side consists of the spatial and temporal distribution of locations where the activities could be performed and the trips associated with them. This market is synonym with the Land Use – Transport System. The output of this market consists of a set of trip patterns: an allocation of the activities to location and times.

Transport Market

The trip patterns (the output of the Trip Market) become the demand side of the transport market: the demand for vehicles for Passenger Transport and Freight Transport and Logistics. The supply side of the transport market consists of the available supply of vehicles and services to accommodate these trips (specified according to place and (time) and how they are perceived. The output of this market consists of a set of realized transport patterns: an allocation of trips to the different Modes of Transport and Transport Services.

Traffic Market

The transport patterns (the output of the Transport Market) become the demand side of the traffic market: the demand for infrastructure to accommodate the vehicles and services. The supply side of the traffic market consists of the available infrastructure with all its attributes, such as Modes of Transport, Traffic Control Systems (Traffic Management Center), Roads, Rails, Terminals, Traffic Intersections, Canals, Bridges, Bicycle / Pedestrian Facilities. The output of the traffic market consists of a set of realized travel patterns: an allocation of teransport vehicles and services to the infrastructure.


Operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated, and the procedures set for this purpose including financing, legalities and policies. In the transport industry, operations and ownership of infrastructure can be either public or private, depending on the country and mode[3].

Usually, operations of transportation systems to perform [#_Traffic_management_1 traffic management] is done in traffic management centres.

From Wikipedia a mode of transport (or means of transport or transport mode or transport modality or form of transport) is a term used to distinguish substantially different ways to perform transport[4]. The most dominant modes of urban transport are land transport, including [#_Road_transport road], [#_Rails rail], [#_Water_transport water] and [#_Air_transport air transport]. Other modes also exist, including pipelines, cable transport, and space transport. Transport using more than one mode is described as [#_Multimodal_transport multimodal transport]. Transportation that carries around many people and can be used by the public is known as [#_Mass_transport mass transport].

Each mode has its own [#_Infrastructure infrastructure], vehicles, and [#_Operations operations], and often has unique regulations. Each mode of transport therefore also has different security issues which should be accounted for in the design and operation processes.

Road transport

People travelling on the road are either pedestrians, cyclists or they are using a certain type of vehicle, such as automobiles, bicycles, buses, vans or trucks. Passenger transport may furthermore be public, where operators provide scheduled services, or private.

Potential risks for road transport are blocked roads and traffic accidents. Blocked roads can be prevented or the consequences can be minimized by using [#_Traffic_management traffic management], such [#_Incident_management as incident management] and designing a [#_Robustness robust road network]. Traffic accidents can be minimized by certain measures for [#_Road_safety road safety] and the consequences can again be minimized with [#_Incident_management incident management].

Non-motorized transport

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Insert text== Other non-motorized modes ==Insert text== Light duty vehicles ==Insert text== Heavy duty vehicles ==Insert text=== Bus ==Insert text= Rail transport =Rail transport includes all transport over rails. This can be either for passenger or goods transport, and with different modes of transport, such as trains, metro and trams.With rail transport, more people or goods can be transported within the same transport vehicle (i.e.) than with road transport. However, there is less flexibility for choosing a different route or time. A schedule is needed to manage all vehicles/trains on the railroad network. Also, disruptions can have large consequences on the schedule, since passing a standstill train is not always possible. This makes a railway system especially vulnerable for incidents or possible terrorist attacks. == Train ==Insert text== Tram ==Insert text= Water transport =Water transport = Air transport =Air transport includes all transport through the air. In an urban or regional context this air transport includes local air traffic such as small airplanes or helicopters. From a broader perspective air transport within urban or regional areas include passenger and freight air routes that cross urban or regional areas. In the context of urban security air transport is explicitly high impact. As experienced during 9/11 and other terrorist threats the consequences of failing security are devastating. Air traffic is therefore extremely well monitored, both in terms of passengers or freight as in terms of routing and operations management. Security enforcement primarily takes place at the [#_Airports airports] incorporating many facets of security management.= Public transport =Public transport is passenger transport which is publicly available. This can furthermore be distinguished in collective and individual transport. Examples of collective public transport are transport by buses, tram metro, train and plane. Examples of individual public transport are taxis, and in some countries so called riksjas or tuk tuks (a bicycle or moped with a backseat for a few people).Public transport management is used to manage the public transport in order to be able to get people from A to B with public transport as efficiently as possible. If the public transport is disrupted due to a security issue, public transport management measures can be used to minimize the hindrance, such as sending temporary buses or letting trains drive over alternative routes.Public transport is very vulnerable to terrorist attacks, since many people use the same means of transport on the same time and the schedule and routes are publicly available. An attack is therefore easy and the consequences are big. = Freight transport and logistics =A special discipline within transportation is freight transport and logistics. It concerns the distribution of goods from the source to their destination, such as warehouses or terminals for further distribution to e.g. shops. This can involve different modes of transport. The total system of organizations, people, technology, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer is called a supply chain. Optimizing this chain is called supply chain optimization. This is mainly focused on time and cost minimization. Disruptions in the supply chain (possibly caused by security issues) mainly have economical consequences, while incidents in passenger transport also might have health consequences for people.= Multimodal transport =Insert text= Mass transport =Insert text